Glossary of Terms
00 flour – It is an Italian ﬂour typically used for pizza dough and pasta. The protein content (8.5%) is typically a little less than all-purpose. A European-style 00 ﬂour will also have a ﬁner grind. You can usually substitute all-purpose ﬂour.
Almond meal — Almond flour
Bain-marie — A bain-marie is a double boiler that’s made by placing a heatproof bowl, containing ingredients to be heated, over a small pan of simmering water (make sure the bottom of the bowl is not touching the water).
Baker’s flour — Bread flour
Baking paper — Parchment paper
Baking soda — Sodium bicarbonate or bicarbonate of soda
Bread flour – Sometimes called “strong” bread ﬂour–it has higher protein content (12.7%) than all- purpose ﬂour, which helps yeast bread get the highest rise.
Buttermilk – A fermented product, basically a thin yogurt–to substitute: for 1 cup (250 ml) of buttermilk, place 1 tablespoon of lemon juice or white vinegar in your cup and ﬁll the rest of the way with milk. Stir and let sit for about 5 minutes until it curdles.
Cake flour – It has the lowest protein content (7%) and produces a ﬁne texture and tender crumb. To substitute all-purpose ﬂour: for every cup of ﬂour (120g), replace 2 tablespoons of the ﬂour with cornstarch (cornﬂour). See step-by-step-instructions.
Cane sugar — Granulated sugar
Caster sugar – This sugar is known as superﬁne sugar in the US. It dissolves more easily and creates a ﬁner crumb, like in cakes. If you don’t have superﬁne sugar, process some granulated sugar in a food processor for a few seconds. In recipes with a coarser crumb, like mufﬁns, you can simply substitute granulated sugar.
Coconut oil – You can substitute butter
Coconut sugar – You can substitute brown sugar or maple sugar.
Confectioners’ sugar – Icing or powdered sugar
Cornstarch — is cornflour or maize flour, a thickening agent for soups and sauces.
Cranked knife — an offset spatula
Cream – Heavy whipping cream has ~35% milk fat. It is closest to double cream (UK), which has 48% butterfat.
Cream cheese – Similar to mascarpone
Crème Fraîche – Similar to sour cream
Digestive biscuits – Digestive biscuits are usually ground and used in crumb crusts. You can substitute graham cracker crumbs.
Full creme milk – Whole milk
Golden caster sugar – Just use white caster sugar, superﬁne, or granulated sugar.
Golden syrup – To substitute, combine equal parts honey and corn syrup.
Graham crackers – Similar to digestives, they are ground into crumbs and used for crumb crusts for cheesecake and tarts. You can substitute digestives.
Granulated sugar – Granulated sugar is coarser than caster sugar. You can substitute caster sugar.
Hazelnut meal – Hazelnut flour
Icing sugar – It is called confectioners’ or powdered sugar in the US.
Mascarpone cheese — is a soft Italian cheese similar to cream cheese. It is most famous for being used in Tiramisu. If you cannot find mascarpone, thin some softened cream cheese with a little heavy cream.
Muscovado sugar – Brown sugar
Pepitas – Pumpkin seeds
Plain flour – All purpose ﬂour. Protein level: 11.7%
Polenta — coarse cornmeal
Powdered sugar – Confectioners’ or icing sugar
Roux — is a thickening agent for gravies and sauces created by cooking flour and fat.
Sachet of gelatine — envelope of gelatin
Self-rising flour – Southern bakers in the US favor this ﬂour for its convenience and making tender baked goods. It has lower protein content (8.5%) and includes both baking powder and salt, so omit those from your recipe when substituting.
Sodium bicarbonate – Baking soda
Springform pan – Baking pan with a removable bottom and straight sides for baking cheesecakes and tortes.
Thickened cream – heavy whipping cream
If you can’t ﬁnd a term you’re looking for, please leave a comment below.
If you can’t locate any of the specialty ﬂours, try King Arthur Flour.